AN INTRODUCTION TO CRITICAL THINKING STEVEN SCHAFERSMAN

A person who thinks critically can ask appropriate questions, gather relevant information, efficiently and creatively sort through this information, reason logically from this information, and come to reliable and trustworthy conclusions about the world that enable one to live and act successfully in it. Here are some of the characteristics of such a thinker: Universal concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to any context or case but only by reflecting upon the nature of that application. Children are not born with the power to think critically, nor do they develop this ability naturally beyond survival-level thinking. Most people, therefore, do not think critically.

This list is, of course, incomplete, but it serves to indicate the type of thinking and approach to life that critical thinking is supposed to be. Within the framework of scientific skepticism, the process of critical thinking involves acquiring information and evaluating it to reach a well-justified conclusion or answer. Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. Critical thinking From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Critical Thinking consists of mental processes of discernment, analysis and evaluation. One can regard critical thinking as involving two aspects: Humans constantly process information. Though the term “analytical thinking” may seem to convey the idea more accurately, critical thinking clearly involves synthesis, evaluation, and reconstruction of thinking, in addition to analysis.

One can regard critical thinking as involving two aspects: Critical thinking is the ability to think for one’s self and reliably and responsibly make those decisions that affect one’s life.

an introduction to critical thinking steven schafersman

Within the framework of scientific skepticism, the process of critical thinking involves acquiring information and evaluating it to reach a well-justified conclusion or answer. Most people indulge in wishful, hopeful, and emotional thinking, believing that what they believe is true because they wish it, hope it, or feel it to be true.

an introduction to critical thinking steven schafersman

Most people are followers of authority: Critical thinking has its basis in intellectual criteria that go beyond subject-matter divisions and which include: Critical thinking can be described as the scientific method applied by ordinary people to the ordinary world.

Crifical, even xteven the use of critical thinking skills, mistakes can happen due to a thinker’s egocentrism or sociocentrism or failure to be in possession of the full facts. Critical thinking, in the strong sense, does not include simply the acquisition and retention of information, or the possession of a skill-set which one does not use regularly; nor does critical thinking merely exercise skills without acceptance of the results.

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Humans constantly process information. Definition of Critical Thinking Critical thinking means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. Universal concepts and principles of critical thinking can be applied to tjinking context or case but only by reflecting upon the nature of that application. Most people, therefore, do not think critically.

An Introduction to Critical Thinking

However, a large part of critical thinking goes beyond informal logic and includes assessment of beliefs and identification of prejudice, bias, propaganda, self-deception, distortion, misinformation, etc.

True critical thinking is higher-order thinking, enabling a person to, for example, responsibly judge between political candidates, serve on crktical murder trial jury, evaluate society’s need for nuclear power schafetsman, and assess the consequences of global warming.

We do an excellent job of transmitting the content of our respective academic disciplines, but we often fail to teach students how to think effectively about this subject matter, that is, how to properly understand and evaluate it.

Here are some of the characteristics of such a thinker: Here are some of the characteristics of such a thinker:.

Critical thinking forms, therefore, a system of related, and overlapping, modes of thought such as anthropological thinking, sociological thinking, historical thinking, political thinking, psychological thinking, philosophical thinking, mathematical thinking, chemical thinking, biological thinking, ecological thinking, legal thinking, ethical thinking, musical thinking, thinking like a painter, sculptor, engineer, business person, etc.

All education consists of transmitting to students two different things: A person who thinks critically can ask appropriate questions, gather relevant information, efficiently and creatively sort through this information, reason logically from this information, and come to reliable and trustworthy conclusions about the world that enable one to live and act successfully in it.

Perhaps you can now see the problem. Given research in cognitive psychology, some educators believe that schools should focus more on teaching their students critical thinking skills, intellectual standards, and cultivating intellectual traits such as intellectual humility, intellectual empathy, intellectual integrity, and fair-mindedness than on memorizing facts by rote learning.

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Critical thinking is the practice of processing this information in the most skillful, accurate, and rigorous manner possible, in such a way that it leads to the most reliable, logical, and trustworthy conclusions, upon which one can make responsible decisions about one’s life, behavior, and actions with full knowledge of assumptions and consequences of those decisions. It may be that a workable society or culture can tolerate only a small number of critical thinkers, that learning, internalizing, and practicing scientific and critical thinking is discouraged.

All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by critical thinking, which is therefore nothing more than scientific method used in everyday critial rather than in specifically scientific disciplines or endeavors. In addition, there is always the possibility of inadvertent human error. Critical thinking is a learned ability that must be thinkjng.

an introduction to critical thinking steven schafersman

It includes possible processes of reflecting upon a tangible or intangible item in order to form a solid judgment that reconciles scientific evidence with common sense. This is true because critical thinking mimics the well-known method of scientific investigation:. Hence a krites is a discerner, judge or arbiter. Using critical thinking one makes a decision or solves the problem of judging what to believe or what to do, but does so in a reflective way.

An Introduction to Critical Thinking by Steven D. Schafersman

These elements also happen to be the key defining characteristics of professional fields and academic disciplines. Critical thinking is important, because it enables one to analyze, evaluate, explain, and restructure our thinking, decreasing thereby the risk of acting on, or thinking with, a false premise.

This is true because critical thinking mimics the well-known method of scientific investigation: