Homework in the early grades should encourage positive attitudes and character traits, allow appropriate parent involvement, and reinforce simple skills introduced in class Cooper, The author examined the costs and benefits of the TIPS intervention over 2 years with data collected by the TIPS and control teachers, students, and families on homework assignments, and measures of emotional, attitudinal, and achievement results. TIPS students and families responded significantly more positively than controls to questions about their emotions and attitudes about the homework experience, and TIPS families and students reported higher levels of family involvement in the TIPS subject. Significant differences emerged in Year 1 only. Teachers of TIPS students in the math and language arts studies assigned one assignment weekly for a total of 30 TIPS activities each year, in addition to their other homework. Teachers should vary the types of interactions that are required across assignments.

I think you should continue them because I am not a math person and I enjoyed them. Teachers graded TIPS and all other homework and provided these data to the author every 9 weeks. Education and Urban Society. In looking at both the feelings and attitudes reported by students and families each year, the TIPS group reported significantly more happy homework experiences and fewer frustrating experiences than did the control group. Overall, given the attention to student and family roles in homework and a regular schedule of weekly, standards-based interactive homework, it was hypothesized that the students and families in the TIPS groups would experience more positive emotional homework interactions and higher achievement than the students and families in the control group. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Child Development, 64, — Costs and Benefits of Family Involvement in Homework Three aspects of homework that entail costs and or produce benefits for home and school contexts are time, homework design, and family involvement.

van voorhis homework

Put another way, most families were involved in some way with their children in math on average 25 times over the course of Year 1, 18 times in language arts, and 15 times voprhis science. Common ground for administrators, teachers, and parents 3rd ed.


More specifically, for the elementary math and voorhiw arts studies, teachers in the control group used their normal homework practices and homework. For a middle school science activity, the student examines a chart of physical, social, emotional, and intellectual changes and records the changes she has observed in life.

Accounting for these differences, a significant TIPS effect emerged for family feelings, student attitudes, family involvement in homework, and standardized test scores.

The average previous standardized test score of students was This study reported beneficial results of three longitudinal studies of TIPS interventions compared to regular homework in math, science, and language arts in the elementary and middle grades. What factors affect student academic achievement?

The mediating role of self-regulatory beliefs. NAEP trends in academic progress: The sample included students in an elementary mathematics intervention in third and fourth grades Van Voorhis,in pressa middle school language arts intervention in sixth and seventh grades Van Voorhis,and a middle school science intervention in seventh and eighth grades Van Voorhis, Each year, teachers administered student and family surveys on attitudes about homework in general and TIPS homework in specific subjects.

The author homewok the costs and benefits of the TIPS intervention over 2 years with data collected by the TIPS and control teachers, students, and families on homework assignments, and measures voprhis emotional, attitudinal, and achievement results.

Costs and Benefits of Family Involvement in Homework

The author met with the teachers in the control group for 1 day in the summer prior to the school year of TIPS implementation for each year voorhia each study.

Permission to reprint this article was granted by Prufrock Press, Inc. Part of the writing process includes pretesting the assignment. Living on Campus Activities. Why our kids get too much of a bad thing.

This study summarizes the findings from the three studies combined, looking across the elementary and middle grades, three courses, and diverse community contexts to address three main research questions: For example, TIPS 2-year students reported significantly higher levels of family involvement in subject homework than both control and TIPS 1-year students see Table 1.


Translating research into action. Teachers report that the homework process needs to improve, and that they would like time to ensure that assignments are relevant to the course and topic of study; build in time for feedback on assignments daily; and establish effective policies at the curriculum, grade, and school levels Markow et al.

van voorhis homework

Some skills lend themselves to better interactions than others. There were 4 similar elementary schools grades K—5 ; and 5 middle schools grades 6—8. This letter included information on the weekly use of TIPS, the grading schedule, and the expectation for a family partner to participate with the student. Living on Campus Activities. The student completes several practice problems independently and shows his work on two of them to his family partner.

van voorhis homework

Science homework occurred less frequently, generally once or twice per week. Teachers also assigned point values to questions in all TIPS assignments to provide consistency in grading across teachers.

Annotation from the Connection Collection

Specifically, they gauged their level of agreement or disagreement with the following statements: Finally, only TIPS students using the intervention for 2 years reported significantly higher levels of family involvement than did students in the control group.

Teachers had to devote time to select or develop interactive homework assignments for the school homewrok. Review of Educational Research, 77, — Then, the student and family partner each put a few coins in their hands. Thinking of the average student and parent, consider: