Family planning is assessed using a survey on knowledge, attitudes and use of contraception and safer conception practices. They are discussed in turn below. There are a lot of social barriers involved. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. According to respondents, such challenges include:

Moreover, such documents have statements whose implications privilege men over women or vice versa , often leading to one sex enjoying more rights or opportunities than the other. Road to Health Chart. Another leader of a health facility added that: However, gender was only discussed in a few sections, and in many cases not in the key sections. These variables will be controlled in analyses as appropriate.

A one-year pilot project enrolling couples provided the foundation for this trial. MI is used to enhance safer sex and family planning. A detailed overview of the above findings is presented below.

As such, participants enter their data themselves and are blind to their assignment.

dissertation on pmtct

The reasons gender is often treated as an add-on are not very clear. For instance, the existing guidelines are silent on how to handle masculine norms that increase vulnerability to HIV, which negatively ob primary prevention of HIV among women.

Intimate partner violence, relationship power, and risk of HIV infection in women attending antenatal clinics in South Africa. Additionally, since the study involved conducting diwsertation, another limitation was recall bias. Prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV in Tanzania: The experimental condition included a gender-concordant group intervention based on sexual risk reduction and PMTCT promotion, and the attention-control condition included time-matched usual antenatal care.


We found only one study suggesting that integrating perinatal PMTCT interventions with other healthcare services in low- and middle-income countries increases the proportion of pregnant women, mothers and infants receiving PMTCT intervention.

The session then addresses delivery, and applies MI to dissedtation mothers to make a plan for delivery. The timeline development of female canine germ cells.

HIV disclosure, sexual negotiation and male involvement in prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission in South Africa. I tell you very few fathers come to the post-natal clinic, fewer than those who attend ANC. Women who rebel against this expectation are physically or emotionally abused and consequently succumb to risky non-consensual dissertatioh Dunkle et al. Articles from Trials are provided here courtesy of BioMed Central.

Finally, male HIV testing is collected from self-report, and male engagement is assessed using an adapted form of the Male Involvement Index [ 36 ].

Physical violence by a partner during pregnancy in Tanzania: Further, in order to maintain confidentiality, data was gathered without names and unique identifiers were attached to the data and only known to the researchers. To tell or not to tell: Footnotes Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Documents which are gender unequal GRAS level 1 have content which perpetuates gender inequality by reinforcing unbalanced norms, roles and relations. In low- and middle-income countries, PMTCT programme coverage remains low and consequently transmission rate high. Changing AIDS risk behavior: For each document, gender related text was copied onto a matrix with three columns: The first session dissetation an individual session, and reviews PMTCT, transmission and prevention of transmission during and following disssertation and infant feeding.


Group session three addresses testing for HIV to enhance treatment and prevent transmission. The authors measured nevirapine coverage in all clinics at baseline and after the implementation of the intervention.

In addition to demographic covariates such as age and education levelinformation regarding HIV stigma and postpartum depression is collected. MI is used to enhance safer sex and family planning. Similar findings have been reported in Uganda, where it was reported that indifference at the leadership level resulted in a lack of actions for addressing gender-related challenges against PMTCT and staff were not held accountable for their inactions NCG Uganda In addition, limited capacity in gender mainstreaming among policy makers may also shed light on why gender is often handled as an add-on.

dissertation on pmtct

The gaps in both guidelines and leadership at service delivery level makes it difficult to effectively deliver PMTCT services and to monitor programme implementation from a gender perspective.

Facilitators and clinic staff write their initials next to appointments as they are completed.